Prior to independence in 1975 agricultural extension in Mozambique was completely focused on commercial and export cash crop production. The long 16 years of civil war and recurrent drought in the interlands increased migration of population to urban and coastal areas, and also contributed to the degradation of the environment. These destabilizing conditions made it difficult for the government of Mozambique to establish and operate an agricultural extension service network (Gemo & Rivera, 2001). It wasn’t until 1987 that the public extension service in Mozambique was created as one of the four national directorates of the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG). During its initial phase of development (1989-1992) extension was entirely carried out by the public sector with assistance from international NGOs (Ibis a Danish NGO, GTZ), and the United Nations agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This establishment phase was characterized by the introduction of the Training and Visit (T&V) approach in few areas around the country (Alage & Nhancale, 2010). For a full report on the pluralistic agricultural extension system in Mozambique, click HERE
bell pepper field, Moamba, Maputo.
Women selling vegetables at Zimpeto
market outside Maputo.
Farmers discussing carrot demonstration,
Farmers irrigating cabbage, Moamba,
Photo courtesy: Walter Bowen, February 2011.
(from Pementa et al. 2009)"The Agricultural Research Institute of Mozambique (IIAM) and the National Directorate for Agricultural
Extension (DNEA) both institutions of the Ministry of Agriculture, are the main institutions in
Mozambique responsible for generating, packaging, and disseminate information on improved agricultural technologies, services and products to enhance farmers productivity and access to markets. However improvements should be done to develop information contents and information systems that are tailored to farmers and other stakeholders needs.
While both Institutions recognize the need for better linkages and synergies and specific actions are identified in the respective strategic plans, In order to avoid duplication of efforts and overlapping of activities adequate capacity should be developed at institutional and individual level, for implementation, coordination and facilitation of information and communication strategies.
Presently, both institutions have in their organizational structures Information, Documentation and Communication Units, with very similar functions and mandate. Both institutions lack adequate equipment (ICT infrastructure) and human resources capacity to deliver the expected results. Staff is overloaded and lack the adequate training and skills to develop, planning and implement efficient and effective information management systems.
Despite these difficulties, relevant information regarding improved agricultural practices / technologies have been disseminated by both IIAM and DNEA and DNEA have a significant geographical coverage in the country.
IIAM and DNEA means for dissemination includes the IIAM web page (www.iiam.gov.mz), Manuals,
Technical Brochures, Newspapers and Press Releases, the use of TV and Radio for technical advise, and the production of several electronic and audio-visual material (Videos, CDs, DVDs).
Community Multimedia Centers, CMCs: "The Ministry of Science and Technology has established a number of multimedia centers at a district level nation wide. Through the CMC’s, rural communities have access and are trained in the use of modern ICT’s. The centers have computers, internet, radio, TV, library and a TV is also placed in a public view position (www.mct.gov.mz).
The centers offer opportunities not only for the local user’s to have access to information they may need, but also brings additional means for NARS and extension advisory services, to disseminate information and improve communication with rural communities and farmers."
MORENET: "This is an initiative that aims at establishing effective and efficient connectivity
systems among Universities and Research Institutions. Morenet provides technological solutions
that will enable the science, technology and innovation system in Mozambique, particularly the
Universities and the research institutes to link to each others both at a national as an international
level. Morenet is still in its inception phase but is a promising mechanism to improve the present
situation for information and knowledge sharing among research institutions."
Virtual Museums for Agricultural Products:
"This is an initiative of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MS&T), aiming at providing information
on different agricultural products with economic relevance. www.mct.gov.mz. The portal presents useful information for agricultural
students, teachers, private sector in the market of cashew nuts and sugar, NGO’s, farmer’s associations, and aims to provide in near future a platform for interaction among the stakeholders of these sub-sectors."
the Master Plan for Agricultural Extension Extension 2007 - 2016.
The National Directorate for Agricultural Extension (Direcção Nacional de Extensão Agrária, DNEA) operates under the Ministry of Agriculture and employes 748 extensionists for the whole country in 2010, an increase by 15% over the 644 who worked for DNEA in 2008. An additional 56 extension staff work only on cashew. (Table 1, see below)
According to Global Horticulture, DNEA operates in all but one of the countries 128 districts. In 2009 DNEA provided support to 378.043. The support activities of DNEA inlcude:
IIAM has four divisions, of which DFDTT focuses on technology transfer
According to Global Horticulture, there are several donor supported projects for the agricultural and horticultural sector:
- PROAGRI 1: 2000-2005: Capacity Building
- PROAGRI 2: 2005-2010: Production Support
- PAPA: 2008-2010: Government of Mozambique: Support to food production, subsidies provided for the supply of seeds, support to reach an horticultural production all over the year
- BAGC Initiative: NORAD / AGRA / DIFD / World Bank: Development of the Beira Corridor, support to smallholders, improving access to market
- The US Government (USAID, USDA) support the sector through projects such as AgriFUTURO with the aim to develop agribusiness services within its values chains which includes horticulture.
The Agriculture Market Information System (Sistema de Informação de Mercados Agricolas=SIMA) is responsible to provide data on agricultural prices of the main crops cultivated in thecountry, input supply and seed availability. Information on production and demand estimates is also provided. The system is supported by up dating studies conducted by NARS and Policy Units of the Ministry of Agriculture, on market dynamics of the main agricultural products, at both national andregional level.
Means of dissemination comprises of a monthly Bulletin Quente-Quente, community radio broadcasting and there is also access through mobile cell phones. Access and use has been proved to be widely spread at community level.